看一只黑鸟的十四种方式 Fourteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird


展览地址:武汉市江岸区青岛路华发外滩荟D-2地块6号楼商业一层 剩余空间


华莱士·史蒂文斯(Wallace Stevens)是美国杰出的现代诗人,《看一只黑鸟的十三种方式》(Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird)是他的代表作之一。这首诗由十三段简短又富有意象的诗节构成,每个诗节都提及到一种观看黑鸟的方式。这种多重角度的观看方式给我们带来了多重的观察和思考的启示,而不是一种经过规训的思维方式。但同时,这也使得诗歌的含义和尺度变得扑朔迷离。在这十三个诗节中,史蒂文斯像导演一样摇动着镜头,在雪山、树、秋风、冰凌、长窗、马车、瘦汉、河流和雪松等多重景观之间自由切换,有动静冲突也有色彩对比,并且让不同景观之间产生出丰富的关联和意象。在整首诗中,黑鸟既是无处不在的主体,又是“哑剧里的小角色”,它是碎片化的整体,它是整体的中心在整体之外。

诗人通过动态的、变化的方式呈现着“黑鸟”的无处不在,并通过诗歌的结构形式分别从十三种视角展现了黑鸟的十三种不同状态,此时,诗人笔下的“黑鸟”不再只是现实世界里的黑鸟,同时也指向了超越时空制约和人类认知的精神世界。看似毫无关联的“黑鸟”的片段,正是体现精神世界的自由、独立和无处不在。史蒂文斯让“黑鸟”在现实与想象之间不断盘旋,“掠过,又闪回”,从而转换为现实与精神世界的隐喻。隐喻是表现意象的一种主要途径,在《我们赖以生存的隐喻》(Metaphors We Live By)一书中指出 ,“隐喻的实质是用一种事物来理解和经验另一种事物”。隐喻并非只是单纯的语言修辞,而是作为人的一种根本的认知形式和思维方式。

读《看一只黑鸟的十三种方式》这首诗,我们会好奇黑鸟所蕴含的象征意义,尽管史蒂文斯只是狡黠的将之称作是“知觉的集合” 。威廉·福克纳(William Faulkner) 在一次采访中的谈话显得意味深长: “我认为没有任何一个人能够看透真相。你看着它,只是看见了它的一个阶段。别人看着的时候, 则看到了稍微歪曲的阶段。但总的而言, 真相就在他们的所见之中,然而没人看到了完整的真相……但我认为,事实证明,当读者读完这十三种看黑鸟的不同方式,在他们自己的脑海中,就会生成第十四种黑鸟的形象,而这恰恰是我所认为的真相。”

以上 ,既是聊诗,也是在说展览。


Wallace Stevens is an outstanding modern American poet, and Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird is one of his masterpieces. This poem consists of thirteen short but richly imaginative stanzas, each of which refers to a different way of viewing a blackbird. This multi-faceted perspective offers us multiple insights and inspirations for thinking, rather than a singular disciplined way of thinking. But at the same time, it also makes the meaning and scale of the poem confusing. In these thirteen stanzas, Stevens pans the camera like a director, switching freely between various landscapes such as snow mountains, trees, autumn winds, icicles, long window, carriages, thin men, river and cedar-limbs, creating contrasts of motion and stillness, as well as color contrasts, which allows rich connections and imagery to emerge between different landscapes. Throughout the poem, the blackbird is not only a ubiquitous subject, but also ” a small part of the pantomime “, fragmented yet integral, simultaneously within and beyond the whole.

The poet presents the omnipresence of the “blackbird” in a dynamic and ever-changing way and showcases thirteen different states of the blackbird from thirteen perspectives through the structural form of the poem. At this point, the “blackbird” portrayed by the poet is no longer just a blackbird in the physical world, but also points to the spiritual one beyond temporal constraints and human cognition. Those seemingly unrelated fragments of the “blackbird” embody freedom, independence, and ubiquity of the spiritual world. Stevens makes the “blackbird” hover between reality and imagination, “darting and flashing back”, thus transforming it into a metaphor for reality and spiritual world. Metaphor is a primary means of expressing imagery, as highlighted in the book “Metaphors We Live By”, which states that “the essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another”. Metaphor is not merely a linguistic figure of speech but rather a fundamental form of human cognition and thinking.

When reading Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird, we become curious about the symbolic significance embodied by the blackbird, although Stevens only cunningly refers to it as a “collection of perceptions.” William Faulkner’s remark during an interview holds weight: “I don’t think anybody can see through the truth. You look at it and see one stage of it, while somebody else looks at it and sees a slightly distorted phase. But in general, the truth itself is in the whole that they both see, and nobody sees all of it… But I think it turns out that when readers have finished with these thirteen ways of looking at a blackbird, a fourteenth image of blackbird would emerge in their own mind, which is exactly the truth that I believe in.”

The above is not only discussing about the poetry, but also the exhibition.